In Japan, Jehovah's Witnesses tend to be considered a Christianity-based Shinshūkyō, not only because they were founded in the 19th century as were other major Shinshūkyō , but also because of their missionary practices, which involve door-to-door visiting and frequent meetings. Conversion from traditional faith was no longer legally forbidden, officials lifted the 250-year ban on Christianity, and missionaries of established Christian churches reentered Japan. Although the practiced censorship of all types of organizations, specific suppression of Shinshūkyō ended. This book examines the nature and extent of this religious expansion outside Japan. Clarke was the founding editor of the , established by the Centre for New Religions in 1985 the journal appeared under the title Religion Today until 1995.
New Religious Movements in South Asia India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka 11. Most came into being in the mid-to-late twentieth century and are influenced by much older traditional religions including , , and. New Religious Movements in Europe 5. The Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements provides uniquely global coverage of the phenomenon, with entries on over three-hundred movement from almost every country in the world. Under the Meiji regime prohibited insults against the Emperor and his Imperial House, and also against some major Shinto shrines which were believed to be tied strongly to the Emperor.
It also began to advertise itself as philosophy rather than religion in order to avoid conflict with the and other socially conservative elements in society. The Japanese government was very suspicious towards these religious movements and periodically made attempts to suppress them. From primitive to indigenous: the academic study of indigenous religions, 2007, pp. Clarke is Professor Emeritus of the History and Sociology of Religion at King's College, University of London, and a professorial member of Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford. He then examines the responses of governments, churches, the media and general public to new religious movements, as well as the reaction to older, increasingly influential religions, such as Buddhism and Islam, in new geographical and cultural contexts. Clarke's in-depth account explores the innovative character of new religious movements and new forms of spirituality from a global vantage point.
The book aims to reveal the difficulties in demonstrating the necessity and validity of any large-scale theory of religion. In view of his contributions to the field, a decision was made to retain his name as the editor of the Journal of Contemporary Religion until the end of the year 2011. In addition to exploring the responses of governments, churches, the media and general public to new religious movements, Clarke examines the reactions to older, increasingly influential religions, such as Buddhism and Islam, in new geographical and cultural contexts. Especially in the , one third of whose members were elected through nationwide vote, nationwide organizations found they could influence national policy by supporting certain candidates. The volume also addresses such central questions as the dynamics of religious innovation which is evidenced in the rise and impact of new religious and new spirituality movements in every continent by Peter B Clarke Book 15 editions published between 1999 and 2015 in English and held by 280 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Since the 1960s virtually every part of the world has seen the arrival and establishment of Japanese new religious movements, a process that has followed quickly on the heels of the most active period of Japanese economic expansion overseas. Entries are cross-referenced with short bibliographies for further reading. Under the new , the Diet had the supreme authority for decision making in state affairs and all its members were elected by the people.
Clarke's in-depth account explores the innovative character of new religious movements and new forms of spirituality from a global vantage point. Among his publications are with Peter Byrne Religion Defined and Explained 1993 and Japanese New Religions In Global Perspective ed 2000. East Asia 2 : New Religious Movements in Japan, Taiwan and Korea Part 5: Conclusions 14. An overview of current scholarship in the field is provided in each themed chapter with an emphasis on encouraging new thinking and reflection on familiar and emergent themes to stimulate further debate and scholarship. Government suppression was especially severe during the early 20th century, particularly from the 1930s until the early 1940s, when the growth of and were closely linked. Clarke's in-depth account explores the innovative character of new religious movements and new forms of spirituality from a global vantage point.
Missionaries arrived not only from traditional churches, but also from some modern denominations, such as. In the 1960s it adopted Portuguese, rather than Japanese, as its language of instruction and communication. Researching new religious movements: responses and redefinitions, p. Acts of faith: explaining the human side of religion. It tells how the major religions began and traces their develpment from their origins to the present. By 1988 it had more than 2.
For experts in the field, it offers a clear light on the most current debates in the field and covers so much across the globe, that any scholar wukk certainly find room to learn more. Prolegomena to a philosophy of religion, 2005, p. New Religious Movements in North America 6. Part 1: Global Perspective, New Age, and Society's Response 1. Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements.
Conclusion: The Uncertain Impact of Old and New Religions Select Bibliography Index 'Peter Clarke provides us with an excellent contemporary theoretical account of the field and a comprehensive source of information on a plethora of religious groups. As social conflicts emerged in this last decade of the , known as the period, some new religious movements appeared. The Sociology of Religion Study Group within the renamed its 2012 postgraduate essay competition the 2012 Peter B. The government strengthened its control over religious institutions that were considered to undermine State Shinto or nationalism, arresting some members and leaders of Shinshukyo, including of Oomoto and of Soka Kyoiku Gakkai now , who typically were charged with violation of lèse majesté and the. The most ambitions publication of its sort, the Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements is a major addition to the reference literature for students and researchers of the field in religious studies and the social sciences.
The philosophical assumptions behind the alleged need to produce a theory of religion are examined in Part I. It considers the role of migration in the spread of religions by examining the issues raised for modern societies by the increasing interaction of different religions. Sociology of Religion Study Group of the British Sociological Association. Peter Clarke provides us with an excellent contemporary theoretical account of the field and a comprehensive source of information on a plethora of religious groups, and for this reason, I strongly recommend it. He then examines the responses of governments, churches, the media and general public to new religious movements, as well as the reaction to older, increasingly influential religions, such as Buddhism and Islam, in new geographical and cultural contexts. .